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AP Coordinator / AP US History Instructor
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About Jefferson Hills, PA
Pennsylvania's history of human habitation extends to thousands of years before the foundation of the colonial Province of Pennsylvania in 1681. Archaeologists generally believe that the first settlement of the Americas occurred at least 15,000 years ago during the last glacial period, though it is unclear when humans first entered the area known as Pennsylvania. There is an open debate in the archaeological community regarding when the ancestors of Native Americans expanded across the two continents down to the tip of South America, with possibilities ranging between 30,000 and 10,500 years ago. The Meadowcroft Rockshelter contains the earliest known signs of human activity in Pennsylvania, and perhaps all of North America, as it contains the remains of a civilization that existed over 10,000 years ago and possibly pre-dated the Clovis culture. By 1000 C.E., in contrast to their nomadic hunter-gatherer ancestors, the native population of Pennsylvania had developed agricultural techniques and a mixed food economy.
By the time that European colonization of the Americas began, several Native American tribes inhabited the region. The Lenape spoke an Algonquian language, and inhabited an area known as the Lenapehoking, which was mostly made up of the state of New Jersey, but incorporated a lot of surrounding area, including eastern Pennsylvania. Their territory ended somewhere between the Delaware River and Susquehanna rivers within the state bounds. The Susquehannock spoke an Iroquoian language and held a region spanning from New York to West Virginia, that went from the area surrounding the Susquehanna River all the way to the Allegheny and Monongahela rivers (about level with modern-day Pittsburgh). European disease and constant warfare with several neighbors and groups of Europeans weakened these tribes, and they were grossly outpaced financially as the Hurons and Iroquois blocked them from proceeding into Ohio during the Beaver Wars. As they lost numbers and land, they abandoned much of their western territory and moved closer to the Susquehanna River and the Iroquois and Mohawk to the north. Northwest of the Allegheny River was the Iroquoian Petun, known mostly for their vast Tobacco plantations, although this is believed to be complete fabrication. They were fragmented into three groups during the Beaver Wars—the Petun of New York, the Wyandot of Ohio and the Tiontatecaga of the Kanawha River in southern West Virginia. South of the Allegheny River was, allegedly, a nation existed known as the Calicua. They may have been the same as the Monongahela Culture and very little is known about them, except that they were probably a Siouan culture. Archaeological sites from this time in this region are scarce and the very few historical sources even mention them—most of these sources only coming from those who met Calicua traders further east on the Allegheny River.
The Dutch and the English each claimed both sides of the Delaware River as part of their colonial lands in America. The Dutch were the first to take possession.
By June 3, 1631, the Dutch had begun settling the Delmarva Peninsula by establishing the Zwaanendael Colony on the site of present-day Lewes, Delaware. In 1638, Sweden established the New Sweden Colony, in the region of Fort Christina, on the site of present-day Wilmington, Delaware. New Sweden claimed and, for the most part, controlled the lower Delaware River region (parts of present-day Delaware, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania) but settled few colonists there.
On March 12, 1664, King Charles II of England gave James, Duke of York a grant that incorporated all lands included in the original Virginia Company of Plymouth Grant plus other lands. This grant was in conflict with the Dutch claim for New Netherland, which included parts of today's Pennsylvania.
On June 24, 1664, the Duke of York sold the portion of his large grant that included present-day New Jersey to John Berkeley and George Carteret for a proprietary colony. The land was not yet in British possession, but the sale boxed in the portion of New Netherland on the West side of the Delaware River. The British conquest of New Netherland began on August 29, 1664, when New Amsterdam was coerced to surrender while facing cannons on British ships in New York Harbor. This conquest continued, and was completed in October 1664, when the British captured Fort Casimir in what today is New Castle, Delaware.
The Peace of Breda between England, France and the Netherlands confirmed the English conquest on July 21, 1667, although there were temporary reversions.
On September 12, 1672, during the Third Anglo-Dutch War, the Dutch re-conquered New York Colony/New Amsterdam, establishing three County Courts, which went on to become original Counties in present-day Delaware and Pennsylvania. The one that later transferred to Pennsylvania was Upland. This was partially reversed on February 9, 1674, when the Treaty of Westminster ended the Third Anglo-Dutch War, and reverted all political situations to the status quo ante bellum. The British retained the Dutch Counties with their Dutch names. By June 11, 1674, New York reasserted control over the outlying colonies, including Upland, but the names started to be changed to British names by November 11, 1674. Upland was partitioned on November 12, 1674, producing the general outline of the current border between Pennsylvania and Delaware.
On February 28, 1681, Charles II granted a land charter to William Penn to repay a debt of £16,000 (around £2,100,000 in 2008, adjusting for retail inflation) owed to William's father, Admiral William Penn. This was one of the largest land grants to an individual in history. The King named it Pennsylvania (literally "Penn's Woods") in honor of Admiral Penn; the Admiral's son who proposed that the land be called New Wales and then, after objections, Sylvania (from the Latin silva: "forest, woods"), was embarrassed at the change from the latter proposed form, fearing that people would think he had named it after himself, but King Charles would not rename the grant. Penn established a government with two innovations that were much copied in the New World: the county commission and freedom of religious conviction.
What had been Upland on what became the Pennsylvania side of the Pennsylvania-Delaware Border was renamed as Chester County when Pennsylvania instituted their colonial governments on March 4, 1681. The Quaker leader William Penn had signed a peace treaty with Tammany, leader of the Delaware tribe, beginning a long period of friendly relations between the Quakers and the Indians. Additional treaties between Quakers and other tribes followed. The treaty of William Penn was never violated.
Between 1730 and when it was shut down by Parliament with the Currency Act of 1764, the Pennsylvania Colony made its own paper money to account for the shortage of actual gold and silver. The paper money was called Colonial Scrip. The Colony issued "bills of credit", which were as good as gold or silver coins because of their legal tender status. Since they were issued by the government and not a banking institution, it was an interest-free proposition, largely defraying the expense of the government and therefore taxation of the people. It also promoted general employment and prosperity, since the Government used discretion and did not issue too much to inflate the currency. Benjamin Franklin had a hand in creating this currency, of which he said its utility was never to be disputed, and it also met with the "cautious approval" of Adam Smith.
James Smith wrote that in 1763, "the Indians again commenced hostilities, and were busily engaged in killing and scalping the frontier inhabitants in various parts of Pennsylvania." Further, "This state was then a Quaker government, and at the first of this war the frontiers received no assistance from the state." The ensuing hostilities became known as Pontiac's War.
After the Stamp Act Congress of 1765, Delegate John Dickinson of Philadelphia wrote the Declaration of Rights and Grievances. The Congress was the first meeting of the Thirteen Colonies, called at the request of the Massachusetts Assembly, but only nine colonies sent delegates. Dickinson then wrote Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania, To the Inhabitants of the British Colonies, which were published in the Pennsylvania Chronicle between December 2, 1767, and February 15, 1768.
When the Founding Fathers of the United States convened in Philadelphia in 1774, 12 colonies sent representatives to the First Continental Congress. The Second Continental Congress, which also met in Philadelphia (in May 1775), drew up and signed the Declaration of Independence in Philadelphia, but when that city was captured by the British, the Continental Congress escaped westward, meeting at the Lancaster courthouse on Saturday, September 27, 1777, and then to York. There they and its primary author, John Dickinson, drew up the Articles of Confederation that formed 13 independent States into a new union. Later, the Constitution was written, and Philadelphia was once again chosen to be cradle to the new American Union. The Constitution was drafted and signed at the Pennsylvania State House, now known as Independence Hall, and the same building where the Declaration of Independence was signed.
Pennsylvania became the second state to ratify the U.S. Constitution on December 12, 1787, five days after Delaware became the first. At the time it was the most ethnically and religiously diverse of the thirteen States. Because one-third of Pennsylvania's population spoke the German language, the Constitution was presented in German to include those citizens in the discussion. Reverend Frederick Muhlenberg acted as the chairman of the state's ratifying convention.
The University of Pennsylvania was founded by Benjamin Franklin in 1740, becoming one of the nine colonial colleges and the first college established in the state. Dickinson College of Carlisle was the first college founded after the States united. Established in 1773, the college was ratified five days after the Treaty of Paris on September 9, 1783. The school was founded by Benjamin Rush and named after John Dickinson.
For half a century, the Pennsylvania General Assembly met at various places in the general Philadelphia area before starting to meet regularly in Independence Hall in downtown Philadelphia for 63 years. However, events such as the Paxton Boys massacres of 1763 had made the legislature aware of the need for a central capital. In 1799 the General Assembly moved to the Lancaster Courthouse,
The General Assembly met in the old Dauphin County Court House until December 1821, when the Federal-style "Hills Capitol" (named for Lancaster architect Stephen Hills) was constructed on a hilltop land grant of four acres set aside for a seat of state government in Harrisburg by the prescient, entrepreneurial son and namesake of John Harris, Sr., a Yorkshire native who had founded a trading post in 1705 and ferry on the east shore of the Susquehanna River. The Hills Capitol burned down on February 2, 1897, during a heavy snowstorm, presumably because of a faulty flue.
The General Assembly met at a nearby Methodist Church until a new capitol could be built. Following an architectural selection contest that many alleged had been "rigged", Chicago architect Henry Ives Cobb was charged with designing and building a replacement building; however, the legislature had little money to allocate to the project, and a roughly finished, somewhat industrial building dubbed the Cobb Capitol was completed. The General Assembly refused to occupy the building. Political and popular indignation in 1901 prompted a second contest that was restricted to Pennsylvania architects, and Joseph Miller Huston of Philadelphia was chosen to design the present Pennsylvania State Capitol that incorporated Cobb's building into magnificent public work, finished and dedicated in 1907.
James Buchanan, a native of Franklin County, served as the 15th U.S. president and was the first president to be born in Pennsylvania. The Battle of Gettysburg — the major turning point of the American Civil War — took place near Gettysburg in July 1863. An estimated 350,000 Pennsylvanians served in the Union Army forces including 8,600 African American military volunteers.
The politics of Pennsylvania were for decades dominated by the financially conservative, Republican-aligned Cameron machine, established by U.S. senator Simon Cameron, later a United States Secretary of War under President Abraham Lincoln. Control of the machine was subsequently passed on to Cameron's son J. Donald Cameron, whose ineffectiveness resulted in a transfer of power to the more shrewd Matthew Quay, and finally to Boies Penrose.
The era after the American Civil War, known as the Gilded Age, saw the continued rise of industry in Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania was home to some of the largest steel companies in the world, as Andrew Carnegie founded the Carnegie Steel Company and Charles M. Schwab founded the Bethlehem Steel. Other titans of industry, such as John D. Rockefeller and Jay Gould, also operated in the state. In the latter half of the 19th century, the U.S. oil industry was born in western Pennsylvania, which supplied the vast majority of kerosene for years thereafter. As the Pennsylvanian oil rush developed, the oil boom towns, such as Titusville, rose and fell. Coal mining was also a major industry in the state. In 1903, Milton S. Hershey began construction on a chocolate factory in Hershey, Pennsylvania; The Hershey Company would become the largest chocolate manufacturer in North America. The Heinz Company was also founded during this period. These huge companies exercised a large influence on the politics of Pennsylvania; as Henry Demarest Lloyd put it, oil baron John D. Rockefeller "had done everything with the Pennsylvania legislature except refine it". Pennsylvania created a Department of Highways and engaged in a vast program of road-building, while railroads continued to see heavy usage.
The growth of industry eventually provided middle-class incomes to working-class households, after the development of labor unions helped them gain living wages. However, the rise of unions led to a rise of union busting, with several private police forces springing up. Pennsylvania was the location of the first documented organized strike in North America, and Pennsylvania experienced the Great Railroad Strike of 1877 and the Coal Strike of 1902. Eventually, the eight-hour day was adopted, and the "coal and iron police" were banned.
At the beginning of the 20th century, Pennsylvania's economy centered on steel production, logging, coal mining, textile production and other forms of industrial manufacturing. A surge in immigration to the U.S. during the late 19th and early 20th centuries provided a steady flow of cheap labor for these industries, which often employed children and people who could not speak English from southern and eastern Europe. Thousands of Pennsylvanians volunteered during the Spanish–American War. Pennsylvania was an important industrial center in World War I, and the state provided over 300,000 soldiers for the military. On May 31, 1918, the Pittsburgh Agreement was signed in Pittsburgh to declare the formation of the independent state of Czechoslovakia with future Czechoslovak president Tomáš Masaryk.
In 1923, President Calvin Coolidge established the Allegheny National Forest under the authority of the Weeks Act of 1911. The forest is located in the northwest part of the state in Elk, Forest, McKean, and Warren Counties for the purposes of timber production and watershed protection in the Allegheny River basin. The Allegheny is the state's only national forest. Pennsylvania manufactured 6.6 percent of total United States military armaments produced during World War II, ranking sixth among the 48 states. The Philadelphia Naval Yard served as an important naval base, and Pennsylvania produced important military leaders such as George C. Marshall, Hap Arnold, Jacob Devers, and Carl Spaatz. During the war, over one million Pennsylvanians served in the armed forces, and more Medals of Honor were awarded to Pennsylvanians than to individuals from any other state.
The Three Mile Island accident was the most significant nuclear accident in U.S. commercial nuclear power plant history. The state was hard-hit by the decline and restructuring of the steel industry and other heavy industries during the late 20th century. With job losses came heavy population losses, especially in the state's largest cities. Pittsburgh lost its place among the top ten most populous cities in the United States by 1950, while Philadelphia dropped to being the fifth and later sixth largest city after decades of being within the top three.
After 1990, as information-based industries became more important in the economy, state and local governments put more resources into the old, well-established public library system. Some localities, however, used new state funding to cut local taxes. New ethnic groups, especially Hispanics and Latinos, began entering the state to fill low skill jobs in agriculture and service industries. For example, in Chester County, Mexican immigrants brought the Spanish language, increased Catholicism, high birth rates and cuisine when they were hired to as agricultural laborers; in some rural localities they made up half the population. Meanwhile, Stateside Puerto Ricans built a large community in the state's third largest city, Allentown. They comprised over 40% of the city's population by 2000.
With the end of mining and the downturn of manufacturing, the state had turned to service industries. Pittsburgh's concentration of universities has enabled it to be a leader in technology and healthcare. Similarly, Philadelphia has a concentration of university expertise. Healthcare, retail, transportation, and tourism are some of the state's growing industries of the postindustrial era. As in the rest of the nation, most residential population growth has occurred in suburban rather than central city areas, although both major cities have had significant revitalization in their downtown areas. Philadelphia anchors the seventh-largest metropolitan area in the country, while Pittsburgh is the center of the twenty-seventh largest metro area in the country. The growth of the Lehigh Valley has made it one of the seventy most populous metro areas in the country, while Pennsylvania also has six other metro areas among the top 200 most populous American metro areas. Philadelphia forms part of the Northeast megalopolis and is associated with the Northeastern United States, while Pittsburgh is part of the Great Lakes Megalopolis and is often associated with the Midwestern United States and the Rust Belt.
On September 11, 2001, during the terrorist attacks on the United States, the small town of Shanksville, Pennsylvania received worldwide attention after United Airlines Flight 93 crashed into a field in Stonycreek Township, 1.75 miles (2.82 km) north of the town, killing all 40 civilians and four al-Qaeda hijackers on board. The hijackers had intended to fly the plane to Washington, D.C. and crash it into either the Capitol or the White House. However, after learning from family members via airphone of the earlier attacks on the World Trade Center, the passengers on board revolted against the hijackers and fought for control of the plane, causing it to crash. It was the only one of the four aircraft hijacked that day that never reached its intended target and the heroism of the passengers has been commemorated.
Within the first half of 2003, the annual Tekko commences in Pittsburgh.
In October 2018, the Tree of Life – Or L'Simcha Congregation experienced the Pittsburgh synagogue shooting.
Pennsylvania is 170 miles (274 km) north to south and 283 miles (455 km) east to west. Of a total 46,055 square miles (119,282 km2), 44,817 square miles (116,075 km) are land, 490 square miles (1,269 km2) are inland waters, and 749 square miles (1,940 km) are waters in Lake Erie. It is the 33rd-largest state in the United States. Pennsylvania has 51 miles (82 km) of coastline along Lake Erie and 57 miles (92 km) of shoreline along the Delaware Estuary. Of the original Thirteen Colonies, Pennsylvania is the only state that does not border the Atlantic Ocean.
The boundaries of the state are the Mason–Dixon line (39°43' N) to the south, the Twelve-Mile Circle on the Pennsylvania-Delaware border, the Delaware River to the east, 80°31' W to the west and the 42° N to the north, except for a short segment on the western end, where a triangle extends north to Lake Erie.
Cities include Philadelphia, Reading, Lebanon and Lancaster in the southeast, Pittsburgh in the southwest, and the tri-cities of Allentown, Bethlehem, and Easton in the central east (known as the Lehigh Valley). The northeast includes the former anthracite coal mining cities of Scranton, Wilkes-Barre, Pittston, Nanticoke, and Hazleton. Erie is located in the northwest. State College serves the central region while Williamsport serves the commonwealth's north-central region as does Chambersburg in the south-central region, with York, Carlisle, and the state capital Harrisburg on the Susquehanna River in the east-central region of the Commonwealth and Altoona and Johnstown in the west-central region.
The state has five geographical regions, namely the Allegheny Plateau, Ridge and Valley, Atlantic Coastal Plain, Piedmont, and the Erie Plain.
Pennsylvania's diverse topography also produces a variety of climates, though the entire state experiences cold winters and humid summers. Straddling two major zones, the majority of the state, except for the southeastern corner, has a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dfb). The southern portion of the state has a humid subtropical climate. The largest city, Philadelphia, has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa).
Summers are generally hot and humid. Moving toward the mountainous interior of the state, the winter climate becomes colder, the number of cloudy days increases, and snowfall amounts are greater. Western areas of the state, particularly locations near Lake Erie, can receive over 100 inches (250 cm) of snowfall annually, and the entire state receives plentiful precipitation throughout the year. The state may be subject to severe weather from spring through summer into autumn. Tornadoes occur annually in the state, sometimes in large numbers, such as 30 recorded tornadoes in 2011; generally speaking, these tornadoes do not cause significant damage.
Pennsylvania is divided into 67 counties. Counties are further subdivided into municipalities that are either incorporated as cities, boroughs, or townships. One county, Philadelphia County, is coterminous with the city of Philadelphia after it was consolidated in 1854. The most populous county in Pennsylvania is Philadelphia, while the least populous is Cameron (4,547).
There are a total of 56 cities in Pennsylvania, which are classified, by population, as either first-, second-, or third-class cities. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania's largest city, has a population of 1.6 million and is the state's only first-class city. Pittsburgh (303,000) and Scranton (76,000) are second-class and second-class 'A' cities, respectively.
The rest of the cities, like the third and fourth-largest—Allentown (126,000) and Reading (95,000)—to the smallest—Parker with a population of only 820—are third-class cities. First- and second-class cities are governed by a "strong mayor" form of mayor–council government, whereas third-class cities are governed by either a "weak mayor" form of government or a council–manager government.
Boroughs are generally smaller than cities, with most Pennsylvania cities having been incorporated as a borough before being incorporated as a city. There are 958 boroughs in Pennsylvania, all of which are governed by the "weak mayor" form of mayor-council government. The largest borough in Pennsylvania is State College (40,501) and the smallest is Centralia.
Townships are the third type of municipality in Pennsylvania and are classified as either first-class or second-class townships. There are 1,454 second-class townships and 93 first-class townships. Second-class townships can become first-class townships if they have a population density greater than 300 inhabitants per square mile (120/km2) and a referendum is passed supporting the change. Pennsylvania's largest township is Upper Darby Township (85,681), and the smallest is East Keating Township.
There is one exception to the types of municipalities in Pennsylvania: Bloomsburg was incorporated as a town in 1870 and is, officially, the only town in the state. In 1975, McCandless Township adopted a home-rule charter under the name of "Town of McCandless", but is, legally, still a first-class township.
The total of 56 cities, 958 boroughs, 93 first-class townships, 1,454 second-class townships, and one town (Bloomsburg) is 2,562 municipalities.
As of the 2020 U.S. census, Pennsylvania had a population of 13,011,844, up from 12,702,379 in 2010. In 2019, net migration to other states resulted in a decrease of 27,718, and immigration from other countries resulted in an increase of 127,007. Net migration to the Commonwealth was 98,289. Migration of native Pennsylvanians resulted in a decrease of 100,000 people. From 2008 to 2012, 5.8% of the population was foreign-born.
Of the people residing in Pennsylvania, 74.5% were born in Pennsylvania, 18.4% were born in a different U.S. state, 1.5% were born in Puerto Rico, U.S. Island areas, or born abroad to American parent(s), and 5.6% were foreign born. Foreign-born Pennsylvanians are largely from Asia (36.0%), Europe (35.9%), and Latin America (30.6%), with the remainder from Africa (5%), North America (3.1%), and Oceania (0.4%).
The largest ancestry groups are listed below, expressed as a percentage of total people who responded with a particular ancestry for the 2010 census:
Pennsylvania's Hispanic or Latino American population grew by 82.6% between 2000 and 2010, making it one of the largest increases in a state's Hispanic population. The significant growth of the Hispanic or Latino population is due to migration to the state mainly from Puerto Rico, which is a U.S. territory, but to a lesser extent immigration from countries such as the Dominican Republic, Mexico, and various Central and South American nations, as well as from the wave of Hispanic and Latinos leaving New York and New Jersey for safer and more affordable living. The Asian population swelled by almost 60%, which was fueled by Indian, Vietnamese, and Chinese immigration, as well the many Asian transplants moving to Philadelphia from New York. The rapid growth of this community has given Pennsylvania one of the largest Asian populations in the nation by numerical values. The African American population grew by 13%, which was the largest increase in that population amongst the state's peers (New York, New Jersey, Ohio, Illinois, and Michigan). Twelve other states saw decreases in their non-Hispanic white populations. The state has a high in-migration of black and Hispanic people from other nearby states, with eastern and south-central portions of the state seeing the bulk of the increases.
The majority of Hispanic or Latino Americans in Pennsylvania are of Puerto Rican descent, having one of the largest and fastest-growing Puerto Rican populations in the country. Most of the remaining Hispanic or Latino population is made up of Mexicans and Dominicans. Most Hispanic or Latinos are concentrated in Philadelphia, Lehigh Valley and South Central Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania's reported population of Hispanics or Latino Americans, especially among the black race, has markedly increased in recent years. The Hispanic or Latino population is greatest in Bethlehem, Allentown, Reading, Lancaster, York, and around Philadelphia. It is not clear how much of this change reflects a changing population and how much reflects increased willingness to self-identify minority status. As of 2010, it is estimated that about 85% of all Hispanics or Latino Americans in Pennsylvania live within a 150-mile (240 km) radius of Philadelphia, with about 20% living within the city itself.
Of the black population, the vast majority in the state are African American, being descendants of African slaves brought to the U.S. south during the colonial era. There are also a growing number of blacks of West Indian, recent African, and Hispanic or Latino origins. Most blacks live in the Philadelphia area, Pittsburgh, and South Central Pennsylvania. Non-Hispanic whites make up the majority of Pennsylvania; they are mostly descended from German, Irish, Scottish, Welsh, Italian, and English immigrants. Rural portions of South Central Pennsylvania are famous nationwide for their notable Amish communities. The Wyoming Valley, consisting of Scranton and Wilkes-Barre, has the highest percentage of white residents of any metropolitan area (with a population of 500,000 or above) in the U.S., with 96.2% of its population claiming to be white with no Hispanic background.
The center of population of Pennsylvania is located in Perry County, in the borough of Duncannon.
The state had the fourth-highest proportion of elderly (65+) citizens in 2010—15.4%, as compared to 13.0% nationwide. According to U.S. Census Bureau estimates, the state's poverty rate was 12.5% in 2017, compared to 13.4% for the United States as a whole.
Note: Births in table do not add up because Hispanics are counted both by their ethnicity and by their race, giving a higher overall number.
As of 2010, 90.2% (10,710,239) of Pennsylvania residents age 5 and older spoke English at home as a primary language, while 4.1% (486,058) spoke Spanish, 0.9% (103,502) German (which includes Pennsylvania Dutch) and 0.5% (56,052) Chinese (which includes Mandarin) of the population over the age of five. In total, 9.9% (1,170,628) of Pennsylvania's population age 5 and older spoke a mother language other than English.
Pennsylvania German is often—even though misleadingly—called "Pennsylvania Dutch". The term Dutch used to mean "German" (including the Netherlands), before the Latin name for them replaced it (but stuck with the Netherlands). When referring to the language spoken by the Pennsylvania Dutch people (Pennsylvania German) it means "German" or "Teutonic" rather than "Netherlander". Germans, in their own language, call themselves "Deutsch", (Pennsylvania German: "Deitsch"). The Pennsylvania German language is a descendant of German, in the West Central German dialect family. It is closest to Palatine German. Pennsylvania German is still very vigorous as a first language among Old Order Amish and Old Order Mennonites (principally in the Lancaster County area), whereas it is almost extinct as an everyday language outside the plain communities, though a few words have passed into English usage.
Of all the colonies, only Rhode Island had religious freedom as secure as in Pennsylvania. Voltaire, writing of William Penn in 1733, observed: "The new sovereign also enacted several wise and wholesome laws for his colony, which have remained invariably the same to this day. The chief is, to ill-treat no person on account of religion, and to consider as brethren all those who believe in one God." One result of this uncommon freedom was a wide religious diversity, which continues to the present.
Pennsylvania's population in 2010 was 12,702,379; of these, 6,838,440 (53.8%) were estimated to belong to some sort of organized religion. According to the Association of Religion Data Archives (ARDA) at Pennsylvania State University, the largest religious bodies in Pennsylvania by adherents were the Roman Catholic Church with 3,503,028 adherents, the United Methodist Church with 591,734 members, and the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America with 501,974 members. Since 2014 among the religious population, 73% of the state was Christian per the Pew Research Center. In 2020, the Public Religion Research Institute estimated 68% of the population identified with Christianity. Among all surveys, the Roman Catholic Church remained the single-largest Christian denomination in the state.
Pennsylvania, especially in the west and in the Pittsburgh area, has one of the largest communities of Presbyterians in the nation, being the third highest by percentage of population and the largest outright in membership as Protestant Christians. The Presbyterian Church (USA), with about 250,000 members and 1,011 congregations, is the largest Presbyterian denomination while the Presbyterian Church in America is also significant, with 112 congregations and approximately 23,000 adherents; the EPC has around 50 congregations, as well as the ECO according to 2010 estimates. The fourth-largest Protestant denomination, the United Church of Christ, has 180,000 members and 627 congregations in the state. The American Baptist Churches USA (also referred to as the Northern Baptist Convention) is based in King of Prussia, Pennsylvania.
Pennsylvania was the center state of the German Reformed denomination from the 1700s. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, is one of the headquarters of the Moravian Church in America. Pennsylvania also has a very large Amish population, second only to Ohio among U.S. states. In the year 2000 there was a total Amish population of 47,860 in Pennsylvania and a further 146,416 Mennonites and 91,200 Brethren. The total Anabapist population including Bruderhof was 232,631, about two percent of the population. While Pennsylvania owes its existence to Quakers, and much of the historic character of the Commonwealth is ideologically rooted in the teachings of the Religious Society of Friends (as they are officially known), practicing Quakers are a small minority of about 10,000 adherents in 2010.
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Asphalt Patching in Plum, PA
Asphalt Sealing in Plum, PA
Asphalt Sealcoating in Plum, PA
Asphalt Chip Sealing in Plum, PA
Tar and Chip in Plum, PA
Modified Tar and Chip in Plum, PA
New Castle, PAPaving Contractor in New Castle, PA
Paving Company in New Castle, PA
Residential Paving in New Castle, PA
Driveway Paving in New Castle, PA
Commercial Paving in New Castle, PA
Parking Lot Paving in New Castle, PA
Asphalt Paving in New Castle, PA
Asphalt Maintenance in New Castle, PA
Asphalt Patching in New Castle, PA
Asphalt Sealing in New Castle, PA
Asphalt Sealcoating in New Castle, PA
Asphalt Chip Sealing in New Castle, PA
Tar and Chip in New Castle, PA
Modified Tar and Chip in New Castle, PA
Allison Park, PAPaving Contractor in Allison Park, PA
Paving Company in Allison Park, PA
Residential Paving in Allison Park, PA
Driveway Paving in Allison Park, PA
Commercial Paving in Allison Park, PA
Parking Lot Paving in Allison Park, PA
Asphalt Paving in Allison Park, PA
Asphalt Maintenance in Allison Park, PA
Asphalt Patching in Allison Park, PA
Asphalt Sealing in Allison Park, PA
Asphalt Sealcoating in Allison Park, PA
Asphalt Chip Sealing in Allison Park, PA
Tar and Chip in Allison Park, PA
Modified Tar and Chip in Allison Park, PA
West Mifflin, PAPaving Contractor in West Mifflin, PA
Paving Company in West Mifflin, PA
Residential Paving in West Mifflin, PA
Driveway Paving in West Mifflin, PA
Commercial Paving in West Mifflin, PA
Parking Lot Paving in West Mifflin, PA
Asphalt Paving in West Mifflin, PA
Asphalt Maintenance in West Mifflin, PA
Asphalt Patching in West Mifflin, PA
Asphalt Sealing in West Mifflin, PA
Asphalt Sealcoating in West Mifflin, PA
Asphalt Chip Sealing in West Mifflin, PA
Tar and Chip in West Mifflin, PA
Modified Tar and Chip in West Mifflin, PA
Johnstown, PAPaving Contractor in Johnstown, PA
Paving Company in Johnstown, PA
Residential Paving in Johnstown, PA
Driveway Paving in Johnstown, PA
Commercial Paving in Johnstown, PA
Parking Lot Paving in Johnstown, PA
Asphalt Paving in Johnstown, PA
Asphalt Maintenance in Johnstown, PA
Asphalt Patching in Johnstown, PA
Asphalt Sealing in Johnstown, PA
Asphalt Sealcoating in Johnstown, PA
Asphalt Chip Sealing in Johnstown, PA
Tar and Chip in Johnstown, PA
Modified Tar and Chip in Johnstown, PA
Mount Lebanon, PAPaving Contractor in Mount Lebanon, PA
Paving Company in Mount Lebanon, PA
Residential Paving in Mount Lebanon, PA
Driveway Paving in Mount Lebanon, PA
Commercial Paving in Mount Lebanon, PA
Parking Lot Paving in Mount Lebanon, PA
Asphalt Paving in Mount Lebanon, PA
Asphalt Maintenance in Mount Lebanon, PA
Asphalt Patching in Mount Lebanon, PA
Asphalt Sealing in Mount Lebanon, PA
Asphalt Sealcoating in Mount Lebanon, PA
Asphalt Chip Sealing in Mount Lebanon, PA
Tar and Chip in Mount Lebanon, PA
Modified Tar and Chip in Mount Lebanon, PA
Greensburg, PAPaving Contractor in Greensburg, PA
Paving Company in Greensburg, PA
Residential Paving in Greensburg, PA
Driveway Paving in Greensburg, PA
Commercial Paving in Greensburg, PA
Parking Lot Paving in Greensburg, PA
Asphalt Paving in Greensburg, PA
Asphalt Maintenance in Greensburg, PA
Asphalt Patching in Greensburg, PA
Asphalt Sealing in Greensburg, PA
Asphalt Sealcoating in Greensburg, PA
Asphalt Chip Sealing in Greensburg, PA
Tar and Chip in Greensburg, PA
Modified Tar and Chip in Greensburg, PA
Latrobe, PAPaving Contractor in Latrobe, PA
Paving Company in Latrobe, PA
Residential Paving in Latrobe, PA
Driveway Paving in Latrobe, PA
Commercial Paving in Latrobe, PA
Parking Lot Paving in Latrobe, PA
Asphalt Paving in Latrobe, PA
Asphalt Maintenance in Latrobe, PA
Asphalt Patching in Latrobe, PA
Asphalt Sealing in Latrobe, PA
Asphalt Sealcoating in Latrobe, PA
Asphalt Chip Sealing in Latrobe, PA
Tar and Chip in Latrobe, PA
Modified Tar and Chip in Latrobe, PA
Bethel Park, PAPaving Contractor in Bethel Park, PA
Paving Company in Bethel Park, PA
Residential Paving in Bethel Park, PA
Driveway Paving in Bethel Park, PA
Commercial Paving in Bethel Park, PA
Parking Lot Paving in Bethel Park, PA
Asphalt Paving in Bethel Park, PA
Asphalt Maintenance in Bethel Park, PA
Asphalt Patching in Bethel Park, PA
Asphalt Sealing in Bethel Park, PA
Asphalt Sealcoating in Bethel Park, PA
Asphalt Chip Sealing in Bethel Park, PA
Tar and Chip in Bethel Park, PA
Modified Tar and Chip in Bethel Park, PA
Monroeville, PAPaving Contractor in Monroeville, PA
Paving Company in Monroeville, PA
Residential Paving in Monroeville, PA
Driveway Paving in Monroeville, PA
Commercial Paving in Monroeville, PA
Parking Lot Paving in Monroeville, PA
Asphalt Paving in Monroeville, PA
Asphalt Maintenance in Monroeville, PA
Asphalt Patching in Monroeville, PA
Asphalt Sealing in Monroeville, PA
Asphalt Sealcoating in Monroeville, PA
Asphalt Chip Sealing in Monroeville, PA
Tar and Chip in Monroeville, PA
Modified Tar and Chip in Monroeville, PA
Murrysville, PAPaving Contractor in Murrysville, PA
Paving Company in Murrysville, PA
Residential Paving in Murrysville, PA
Driveway Paving in Murrysville, PA
Commercial Paving in Murrysville, PA
Parking Lot Paving in Murrysville, PA
Asphalt Paving in Murrysville, PA
Asphalt Maintenance in Murrysville, PA
Asphalt Patching in Murrysville, PA
Asphalt Sealing in Murrysville, PA
Asphalt Sealcoating in Murrysville, PA
Asphalt Chip Sealing in Murrysville, PA
Tar and Chip in Murrysville, PA
Modified Tar and Chip in Murrysville, PA
Jefferson Hills, PAPaving Contractor in Jefferson Hills, PA
Paving Company in Jefferson Hills, PA
Residential Paving in Jefferson Hills, PA
Driveway Paving in Jefferson Hills, PA
Commercial Paving in Jefferson Hills, PA
Parking Lot Paving in Jefferson Hills, PA
Asphalt Paving in Jefferson Hills, PA
Asphalt Maintenance in Jefferson Hills, PA
Asphalt Patching in Jefferson Hills, PA
Asphalt Sealing in Jefferson Hills, PA
Asphalt Sealcoating in Jefferson Hills, PA
Asphalt Chip Sealing in Jefferson Hills, PA
Tar and Chip in Jefferson Hills, PA
Modified Tar and Chip in Jefferson Hills, PA
Lower Burrell, PAPaving Contractor in Lower Burrell, PA
Paving Company in Lower Burrell, PA
Residential Paving in Lower Burrell, PA
Driveway Paving in Lower Burrell, PA
Commercial Paving in Lower Burrell, PA
Parking Lot Paving in Lower Burrell, PA
Asphalt Paving in Lower Burrell, PA
Asphalt Maintenance in Lower Burrell, PA
Asphalt Patching in Lower Burrell, PA
Asphalt Sealing in Lower Burrell, PA
Asphalt Sealcoating in Lower Burrell, PA
Asphalt Chip Sealing in Lower Burrell, PA
Tar and Chip in Lower Burrell, PA
Modified Tar and Chip in Lower Burrell, PA
Jeannette, PAPaving Contractor in Jeannette, PA
Paving Company in Jeannette, PA
Residential Paving in Jeannette, PA
Driveway Paving in Jeannette, PA
Commercial Paving in Jeannette, PA
Parking Lot Paving in Jeannette, PA
Asphalt Paving in Jeannette, PA
Asphalt Maintenance in Jeannette, PA
Asphalt Patching in Jeannette, PA
Asphalt Sealing in Jeannette, PA
Asphalt Sealcoating in Jeannette, PA
Asphalt Chip Sealing in Jeannette, PA
Tar and Chip in Jeannette, PA
Modified Tar and Chip in Jeannette, PA